[5] have found that participation frequency and time spent on sports is higher among members of sports clubs in certain types of sports, in contrast to the frequency of engagement of non-organized sports participants. Previous studies have shown that a range of different factors is associated with sports participation, including sports frequency [5,15,16]. Furthermore, due to the cross-sectional design of the study, the directions of the associations found is unknown and do not imply causality. Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, Health-related goals significantly increased sports frequency among users of informal settings, such as public spaces. In this paper we build upon definitions of sports participation used in the previous literature [10–12] and we distinguish between the following sports settings: 1) club-organized sports settings (i.e., voluntary sports clubs), 2) non-club organized settings (i.e., gyms, health centres or swimming pools) and 3) informal settings such as public spaces. The factor structure resulting from the PCA corresponded with the original classification. In this article, we summarize: (a) the arguments linking participation in structured leisure activities to positive youth development, (b) our findings on the association of extracurricular activity involvement with both educational and risky behavior outcomes during adolescence and young adulthood, and (c) our findings regarding possible mediating mechanisms of these associations. For participants in gyms or health centres, it is more difficult to anticipate what role motivations and goals impact sports frequency. Moreover, creating a healthy, welcoming and inclusive environment might allow those with more vulnerable health status to feel more at ease at sports clubs [52]. Prior research on this topic has yielded contradictory results: while some authors find a positive effect of sports participation on academic outcomes, others report a negative impact. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Yes Developmental Benefits of Extracurricular Involvement: Do Peer Characteristics Mediate the Link Between Activities and Youth Outcomes? Data were gleaned from open-ended interviews with 14 retired elite athletes, 6 males and 8 females, from a variety of sports. What Adolescents Learn in Organized Youth Activities: A Survey of Self‐Reported Developmental Experiences, Extracurricular Activities and Adolescent Development, Social and motivational predictors of continued youth sport participation, Sports Participation as a Protective Factor Against Depression and Suicidal Ideation in Adolescents as Mediated by Self-Esteem and Social Support. No, Is the Subject Area "Physical activity" applicable to this article? Limitations of the study are discussed and recommendations are made for future research. Athletes discussed perceived psychological effects (low mood, anger, low self-efficacy, low self-esteem, anxiety, sense of accomplishment), training effects (increased motivation, decreased motivation, reduced enjoyment, impaired focus, difficulty with skill acquisition), and performance effects (performance decrements, enhanced performance) of their experiences of emotional abuse. The entry concludes with a recommendation that future research treats sports as a unique environment, where levels of aggression, violence, and competitiveness may differ. Multilevel regression analysis revealed Project administration, According to Borgers et al. The Sports Participation in the United States study is a research program designed to measure the number of individuals seven years of age or older who participated in each of a number of different sports / recreational activities within the previous year. Based on self-determination theory (SDT) [17], various studies have found that more self-determined and autonomous types of motivation have an important impact on (persistence in) sports participation [18,19]. The use of frequency of participation in specific studies complements those that have previously been limited to the core definition of participation. About this research Participation in sport is associated with a range of physical, social and mental health benefits3, 4. Research proposal: Sports participation 1. Policymakers could investigate the motivations that different groups of (potential) public space participants have for sports participation and for the use of specific locations. This study sought to enhance, through qualitative methods, an understanding of the factors that influence adolescents’commitments to extracurricular activities over time. Launching more varieties of sports activities and making sport more fun will attract a larger participant base, and sports data created by participants could work as positive feedback as well as sports motivations. Through reference to research conducted around the work of Leyton Orient Community Sports Programme on a Tower Hamlets Drug Challenge Fund Project, a case is made for the use of sport within the framework of holistic community development interventions in preference to punitive diversionary measures. Several significant interaction effects of motivations and goals with sports settings were found (Table 2). Informal sports participants more frequently perceived their health as (very) bad to moderate than did users of other settings. Methodology, The purposes of this study were to examine the percentage of female elite athletes and controls with disordered eating (DE) behavior and clinical eating disorders (EDs), to investigate what characterize the athletes with EDs, and to evaluate whether a proposed method of screening for EDs in elite athletes does not falsely classify sport-specific behaviors as indicators of EDs. Recorded interview sessions were transcribed verbatim and themes were coded from the transcripts using open, axial, and selective coding techniques. Dataset based on data collection in six municipalities in the Netherlands (2014). The first model (Nagelkerke R2 = 0.173) showed the main effects of sports settings, motivations, goals, and confounders. These informal sports participants mostly used public spaces as their sports location (68.8%) and were diverse regarding their sports frequency. Yes To develop targeted policy strategies to increase sports participation, more insight is needed into the behavioural patterns and preferences of users of different club-organized (i.e., sports clubs) and non-club organized (i.e., gyms, health centres or swimming pools) or informal sports settings such as public spaces. Survey of national sample of Norwegian high school students (aged 13-19 years) in 1992 (T1) followed-up in 1994 (T2), 1999 (T3) and 2006 (T4) (n = 3251). – than heterosexual can be problematic”. Most participants described themselves as an experienced recreational athlete (58.7%). For instance, their sports frequency could be fostered trough autonomy and flexibility. In addition to more general sociodemographic characteristics such as sex, age and working and household situations [5], psychological determinants such as motivation or behavioural regulation (the reason why a person participates in sports) and goals (what an individual is expecting to achieve with sports) have been found to be strong intrapersonal determinants of sports participation. Is the Subject Area "Sports" applicable to this article? Placing higher value on sport was most strongly related to older students’ positive experiences at higher levels of involvement. While factors of the physical environment are often taken into account as determinants influencing health behaviour, including sports participation [14,50], we recommend also considering interactions on different levels, including psychological-environmental interactions, in research on explaining sports participation. Data Availability: All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. Each item was rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (totally disagree) to 5 (totally agree). Furthermore, performed researches concerning common sporting environments tend to focus on evaluating attitudes and conducts of sportsmen while ignoring the influence of other social agents such as coaches, parents/spectators, referees. Data were collected via an online survey that recorded information about motivations, goal content, and sports participation characteristics, including principal sports setting. Investigation, Items included, for instance, ‘I participate in sports because people say I should’ for external regulation and ‘It's important to me to exercise regularly’ for identified regulation. No, Is the Subject Area "Psychological attitudes" applicable to this article? Barriers and support levels were then compared with those of 80 nonoverweight children of a similar age range. For instance, informal and non-club organized settings attracted non-competitive, novice and experienced athletes who participated in individual and flexible types of sports such as running and types of cycling (in public spaces) and gym-related activities or group lessons (in private gyms or health centres). Our sample included 1,259 mostly European American adolescents (approximately equal numbers of males and females). Formal analysis, Limitations of this study are the low response rate (9.2%) and a sample that consisted of a relative active older age group, whereas respondents with low income and non-Dutch migration background were underrepresented. The U.S. government produces limited data on sport participation and physical activity rates, and none on youth before high school age. Department of Human Geography and Spatial Planning, Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands, Roles This study examined young adult sequelae of participation in high school activities and identity group for 900 participants from the Michigan Study of Life Transitions.Participation at Grade 10 in high school activities predicted later substance use, psychological adjustment, and educational and occupational outcomes.Prosocial activity participation predicted lower substance use and higher self-esteem and an increased likelihood of college graduation.Performing arts participation predicted more years of education as well as increases in drinking between ages 18 and 21 and higher rates of suicide attempts and psychologist visits by the age of 24.Sports participation predicted positive educational and occupational outcomes and lower levels of social isolation but also higher rates of drinking. Survey questions on sports participation, sports location and organizational setting were derived from the standardized and validated Dutch guidelines for sports participation research [31,32]. This study had two goals: to investigate the association between participation in extracurricular activities and indicators of positive and negative development for Australian adolescents; and to determine if these associations were mediated by the characteristics of adolescents' friends. Both perceived health and BMI were controlled for because because they possibly could be related to our independent and dependent variables [21,40]. The second model (including interactions between motivations and sports settings) showed that those participating in club-organized settings with strong controlled motivations had a higher sports frequency. Although most socio-ecological models recognize the existence of interactions between factors at multiple levels, they often do not offer clear hypotheses on how these factors interact [25]. This research can help educators understand the moti-vation to continue involvement in sports and the causes of attrition among youth. Participants responded to the question ‘Why did you participate in your principal sport during the past 12 months?’. Does sports participation during adolescence prevent later alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use? No previous studies examined potential mediators between sports participation and suicidal ideation and only one study explored possible mediators between sports participation and depression. ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication. 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