Pope Sixtus's tomb was destroyed in the Sack of Rome in 1527. Discover (and save!) In a sense, the final season all comes down to family matters, albeit in the most twisted and labyrinthine manner possible. One reason is that Pope John Paul II has canonized more saints than any other pope. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by Raul Bova in the second season, and John Lynch in the third season of the TV series Medici: Masters of Florence. Sixtus IV sought to strengthen his position by surrounding himself with relatives and friends. He was born in Celle Ligure, a town near Savona. The season 2 ended with Turks invading Italy and Leonardo making a Cannon to destroy their ships. They didn’t recant. He is the presiding head of the Roman Catholic church, although his twin brother Francesco (imprisoned at Castel Sant'Angelo) is the true legitimate Pope. Cardinal Francesco Della Rovere was elected Pope by colleagues who believed he was an unworldly mystic who could be easily controlled. https://davincisdemons.fandom.com/wiki/Sixtus_IV?oldid=5729. Synonyms for Sixtus IV in Free Thesaurus. Asked by Wiki User. Little is known of the specifics of his pontificate although some correspondence does exist. Through 1988, his total was 254, which is more than all those … Antonyms for Sixtus IV. Though it’s not certain, Anterus likely died a martyr, given the hostile environment in Rome at the time. The new calendar made one very significant change. He also refounded, enriched and enlarged the Vatican Library. Take your favorite fandoms with you and never miss a beat. Otto von Habsburg (given names: Franz Joseph Otto Robert Maria Anton Karl Max Heinrich Sixtus Xaver Felix Renatus Ludwig Gaetan Pius Ignatius; 20 November 1912 – 4 July 2011), was the last crown prince of Austria-Hungary from 1916 until the dissolution of the empire in April 1919. Did pope sixtus iv had a twin brother? 1 synonym for Sixtus IV: Francesco della Rovere. On 1 November 1478, Sixtus published the papal bull Exigit Sincerae Devotionis Affectus through which the Spanish Inquisition was established in the Kingdom of Castile. The Pope is engaged in all things except for religion. In some deep sense, Sixtus believes he IS God and that whatever he does in God’s name is justified. THE TORTURE AND DEATH OF SAINT SIMON OF TRENT The small Simon, a little boy from Trent, was slayed on the 21st March, 1475, on Maundy-Thursday during Holy Week. I am eagerly waiting for what happens next. What are synonyms for Sixtus IV? This Etruscan bronze is dated stylistically to about 500-480 BC. His accomplishments as pope included building the Additional Physical Format: Online version: Schüssler, Stephanie, 1965-Grabmal Sixtus IV. became a martyr together with Pope Sixtus II in the middle of the 3rd century, with a magnificent tomb. At the beginning of his papacy, in 1471, Sixtus had donated several historically important Roman sculptures that founded a papal collection of art, which would eventually develop into the collections of the Capitoline Museums. The Pope dedicated the new church to the twin brothers, physicians Cosmas and Damian of Greece, renown for their healing powers and famous for transplanting the leg of a black Ethiopian man onto the body of a western European white man. OUR MOST HOLY LORD POPE SIXTUS V'S. He was the Lord of Imola and Forli. However, we can't find any record of Pope Sixtus IV having a twin brother, or of his being related to Lucrezia Donati – we have a feeling this might be dramatic licence on the part of the show. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by James Faulkner in the historical fantasy Da Vinci's Demons as having an identical twin, Alessandro. He went on to lecture at Padua and many other Italian universities. [25], "Francesco della Rovere" redirects here. This page is based on the Wikipedia article. That was part of a broader scheme of urbanization carried out under Sixtus IV, who swept the long-established markets from the Campidoglio in 1477 and decreed in a bull of 1480 the widening of streets and the first post-Roman paving, the removal of porticoes and other post-classical impediments to free public passage. In his territorial aggrandizement of the Papal States, his niece's son Cardinal Raffaele Riario, for whom the Palazzo della Cancelleria was constructed, was suspected of colluding in the failed Pazzi conspiracy of 1478 to assassinate both Lorenzo de' Medici and his brother Giuliano and replace them in Florence with Sixtus IV's other nephew, Girolamo Riario. The length of a year was reduced from Antonyms for Pope Sixtus IV. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by James Faulkner in the historical fantasy Da Vinci's Demons as having an identical twin, Alessandro. A marble tombstone marks the site. your own Pins on Pinterest Cardinal Francesco della Rovere is the legitimate Pope and Head of the Catholic Church, having been elected to the pontificate and enthroned as Pope Sixtus IV, in 1471. [18] Arguably the "ideology of conquest" expounded in those texts became the means by which commerce and conversion were facilitated.[19]. Alessandro della Rovere, now Pope Sixtus IV ( July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484), is portrayed by James Faulkner. Uppsala's bull, which granted the university its corporate rights, established a number of provisions. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by Arthur Grosser in the short film Assassin's Creed: Lineage, a prequel to the video game Assassin's Creed II. Read Wikipedia in Modernized UI. [10][11][12] However, Infessura had partisan allegiances to the Colonna and so is not considered to be always reliable or impartial. Didacus, a Spanish Observant Franciscan friar, was canonized by Pope Sixtus V in 1588 and is considered the Patron of Franciscan Brothers. Oct 8, 2013 - This blog follows monarchies: kings, queens, popes, and military heros. [14] Although such accusations are easily dismissed as anti-Catholic propaganda,[10] they still prompted the noted historian of the Catholic Church, Ludwig von Pastor, to issue a firm rebuttal.[15]. [3] That was a cornerstone of the privileges claimed for the Gallican Church and could never be shifted as long as Louis XI manoeuvred to replace King Ferdinand I of Naples with a French prince. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 August 1471 to his death. In ecclesiastical affairs, Sixtus promoted the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, which had been confirmed at the Council of Basle in 1439,[6] and he designated 8 December as its feastday. Sixtus's earlier threats to excommunicate all captains or pirates who enslaved Christians in the bull Regimini Gregis of 1476 could have been intended to emphasise the need to convert the natives of the Canary Islands and Guinea and establish a clear difference in status between those who had converted and those who resisted. He was sent as a missionary to the Canary Islands in 1442, and was named superior of Fortaventura. In the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì, he is accompanied by his Della Rovere and Riario nephews, not all of whom were made cardinals; the protonotary apostolic Pietro Riario (on his right), the future Pope Julius II/ Giuliano Della Rovere standing before him; and Girolamo Riario and Giovanni della Rovere, behind the kneeling Platina, author of the first humanist history of the popes. Some candidates were sexually active before their election as pope, and others were accused of being sexually active during their papacies.A number of them had offspring. Thus, Romulus named the city after himself and declared himself as king. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by James Faulkner in the historical fantasy Da Vinci's Demons as having an identical twin, Alessandro. As Pope, he issued a papal bull allowing local bishops to give the bodies of executed criminals and unidentified corpses to physicians and artists for dissection. He was overthrown by his younger twin brother, Alessandro della Rovere, who took his place as Pope, locking Francesco in a dungeon at Castel Sant'Angelo. The third season has … Nevertheless, Sixtus IV quarrelled over protocol and prerogatives of jurisdiction; he was unhappy with the excesses of the Inquisition and condemned the most flagrant abuses in 1482. Xystus (later spelled Sixtus) - Elected Pope in 257 AD. He is the presiding head of the Roman Catholic church, although his twin brother Francesco (imprisoned at Castel Sant'Angelo) is the true legitimate Pope. The present basilica dates back to the fifth century and was started no earlier than 420, maybe with the demolition of the Basilica of Pope Liberius, if it was in existence at that time. He felt unwell that evening and was forced to cancel a meeting he was to hold with his cardinals the following morning. Anyone who wanted fresh, clean drinking water could only obtain it from a single fountain near today’s Trevi Fountain. Before his papal election, Cardinal della Rovere was renowned for his unworldliness and had written learned treatises, including On the Blood of Christ and On the Power of God. [6] Some fruitless attempts were made towards unification with the Greek Church. They say, good things come in pairs. To this end, Sixtus is rebuilding the Vatican, Rome and the Church itself. It is a great thing to follow if you love royal families, the always fascinating Catholic Church, powerful accomplishments, and intriguing scandal! He has imprisoned his brother and taken the seat. He is the presiding head of the Roman Catholic church, although his twin brother Francesco (imprisoned at Castel Sant'Angelo) is the true legitimate Pope. Sixtus continued a dispute with King Louis XI of France, who upheld the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges (1438), which held that papal decrees needed royal assent before they could be promulgated in France. Cornelius - a roman priest who was elected Pope to succeed Fabian. He was elected on November 21, but died soon after, on January 3. Msgr. He was buried in the Chapel of the Holy Trinity adjoining the College. ... His brother Nicholas fell in love with a Ukrainian girl named Anastasia Bagan. Before he became pope, he had spent time at the very liberal and cosmopolitan University of Padua, which maintained considerable independence from the Church and had a very international character. Pope Sixtus V Servant of the Servants of God. The della Rovere, the family of Pope Sixtus IV and of Pope Julius II had their family chapel at S. Maria del Popolo; this explains why so many coats of arms of this family can be seen in the church, including those of Cardinal Domenico della Rovere who built a palace in Borgo aka Palazzo dei Penitenzieri. He has imprisoned his brother and taken the seat. [7] He had Regiomontanus attempt the first sanctioned reorganisation of the Julian calendar and increased the size and prestige of the papal chapel choir, bringing singers and some prominent composers (Gaspar van Weerbeke, Marbrianus de Orto and Bertrandus Vaqueras) to Rome from the north. [13] The English churchman and Protestant polemicist John Bale, writing a century later, attributed to Sixtus "the authorisation to practice sodomy during periods of warm weather" to the "Cardinal of Santa Lucia". BENEVOLO, Leonardo (1980). Sixtus’ goals are to shore up the Church's spiritual authority, increase its wealth, and to end seven hundred years of Muslim expansion. Research shows that the earliest part of the basilica dates from the time of Pope Sixtus III (432-440). May 22, 2015 - Sites & places associated w/ Arthurian legend In addition to being a patron of the arts, Sixtus was a patron of the sciences. Around the sides are bas-relief panels depicting allegorical female figures representing Grammar, Rhetoric, Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, Painting, Astronomy, Philosophy and Theology—the classical liberal arts, with the addition of painting and theology. The implementation of the new calendar, which we call the Gregorian Calendar after Pope Gregory XIII, came in 1582. However, after the conquest of Smyrna, the fleet disbanded. He was sent to Rome in 1450 where he worked himself … In 1585, at the start of Pope Sixtus V’s reign, only one aqueduct was maintained: Aqua Vergine. Evil Twin: To Lucrezia's father, the real Francesco Della Rovere. To all Our venerable brother Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, Bishops and beloved sons, and those constituted Prelates of the other churches throughout the entire globe, greetings and Apostolic benediction. Senigallia (or Sinigaglia in Old Italian, Romagnol: S’nigaja) is a comune and port town on Italy's Adriatic coast. He formally annulled the decrees of the Council of Constance in 1478. Shortly after the true Pope Sixtus, Francesco, was elected on conclave, Alessandro usurped the Holy See and had his brother locked up in Castel Sant'Angelo. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. 1 synonym for Francesco della Rovere: Sixtus IV. A rough grouping of rocks is centered within the pool with two kneeling tritons holding up the upper bowl shaped as an oyster shell. [4] His reputation for piety was one of the deciding factors that prompted the College of Cardinals to elect him Pope upon the unexpected death of Paul II at the age of fifty-four.[5]. CE. "Francesco della Rovere" redirects here. He converted many Muslims by his preaching and example and especially by his care for the sick. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by James Faulkner in the historical fantasy Da Vinci's Demons as having an identical twin, Alessandro. BY WHICH ST. BONAVENTURE, THE SERAPHIC DOCTOR, CARDINAL BISHOP OF ALBA, IS NUBMERED AMONG THE EXCEPTIONAL AND EXTRAORDINARY DOCTORS. Sixtus IV named seven new saints with the most notable being Bonaventure (1482); he also beatified one person: John Buoni (1483). Sixtus IV replied with an interdict and two years of war with Florence. Francesco Salviati, Archbishop of Pisa and a main organizer of the plot, was hanged on the walls of the Florentine Palazzo della Signoria. Initially, Sixtus regards Da Vinci as a distraction. Pope Sixtus is portrayed by James Faulkner in the historical fantasy Da Vinci's Demons as having an identical twin, Alessandro. Recalling the story of a she-wolf which fed Romulus, the legendary founder of Rome, and his twin brother, Remus, after they had been thrown in a basket into the Tiber River, the so called "Lupa Capitolina" (Capitoline she-wolf) was donated to the museum in 1471 by Pope Sixtus IV. His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. Although Sixtus endorsed the plot, he did not approve of assassination. Upon being elected Pope, Della Rovere adopted the name Sixtus, which had not been used since the 5th century. Pope St. Sixtus I (in the oldest documents, Xystus is the spelling used for the first three popes of that name), succeeded St. Alexander and was followed by St. Telesphorus.According to the "Liberian Catalogue" of popes, he ruled the Church during the reign of Adrian "a conulatu Nigri et Aproniani usque Vero III et Ambibulo", that is, from 117 to 126. REGENSBURG, Germany (CNS) — Retired Pope Benedict XVI followed the funeral of his brother, Georg Ratzinger, via live streaming, reported the German Catholic news agency KNA. Then, as an enemy whose insults must be avenged. Legend has it that Rome was founded in 753 BC by twin brothers Romulus and Remus who were raised by a she-wolf. The chapel takes its name from Pope Sixtus IV, who restored the old Cappella Magna between 1477 and 1480. Shortly after the true Pope Sixtus, Francesco, was elected on conclave, Alessandro usurped the Holy See and had his brother locked up in Castel Sant'Angelo. According to the later published chronicle of the Italian historian Stefano Infessura, Diary of the City of Rome, Sixtus was a "lover of boys and sodomites", awarding benefices and bishoprics in return for sexual favours and nominating a number of young men as cardinals, some of whom were celebrated for their good looks. He was noted for his nepotism and was personally involved in the infamous Pazzi conspiracy. None of them actually states how he died. It is known for certain that Anterus was buried in the Cemetery of St. Callixtus on the The Pope grew weaker during the night of 11 August and he was unable to sleep. He converted many Muslims by his preaching and example and especially by his care for the sick. The dedicatory inscription in the fresco by Melozzo da Forlì in the Vatican Palace records: "You gave your city temples, streets, squares, fortifications, bridges and restored the Acqua Vergine as far as the Trevi..." In addition to restoring the aqueduct that provided Rome an alternative to the river water, which had made the city famously unhealthy, he restored or rebuilt over 30 of Rome's dilapidated churches such as San Vitale (1475) and Santa Maria del Popolo, and he added seven new ones. Shortly after the true Pope Sixtus, Francesco, was elected on conclave, Alessandro usurped the Holy See and had his brother locked up in Castel Sant'Angelo. The twin sons of the god Mars and priestess Rhea Silvia are said to have later founded Rome on the Palatine in 753 BC. Login with Facebook Back in the fifth century, Pope Sixtus III had created within the primitive basilica a “cave of the Nativity” similar to that in Bethlehem. The History of the City. Well, in the case of Via delle Quattro Fontane, they seem to double that. Its bell tower is the highest in Rome. Pope Sixtus IV repeated his 1481 call for a crusade. 21 Probably just a charnel house, created to make room and reuse the sepulchres and later believed to be a common pit/grave of martyrs. A patron of the arts, he brought together the group of artists who ushered the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age. Possibly born a slave, and with a twin brother named Eros, Anterus was the son of a man named Romulus. Bishop Rudolf Voderholzer of Regensburg said Pope Benedict, 93, was connected to the Mass taking place for his older brother July 8 in the Regensburg Cathedral. [22] This act of Sixtus IV had a profound long-term effect on the society and culture of Sweden, an effect which continues up to the present. By continuing to use our site, you accept our use of cookies, Bibliographic and Digital Archival Resources. DECRETAL LETTERS. [20] The ecclesiastical penalties were directed towards those who were enslaving the recent converts.[21]. In 1475 Pope Sixtus IV initiated examination of the problem, but it wasn’t until 1545 that the Council of Trent authorized calendar reform. In 1476, he issued the apostolic constitution Cum Praeexcelsa, establishing a Mass and Office for the feast. Pietro became one of the richest men in Rome and was entrusted with Pope Sixtus' foreign policy. After much deliberation, he was made a Cardinal by Pope Sixtus V on 7 August 1587, possibly to ensure the success of the Spanish Armada. Just as the name suggests, the “Street of Four Fountains” is a home to four fountains of the late Renaissance, between 1588 and 1593, whose construction was ordered by Pope Sixtus V. [7] His nephew Pietro Riario also benefited from his nepotism. Letter, 1483. Ercole I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, was allied with the Sforzas of Milan, the Medicis of Florence along with the King of Naples, normally a hereditary ally and champion of the papacy. 19 Pope Sixtus II (257-8) was martyred with six of his deacons and sub-deacons. Alessandro della Rovere, now Pope Sixtus IV ( July 21, 1414 – August 12, 1484), is portrayed by James Faulkner. Louis was thus in conflict with the papacy, and Sixtus could not permit it. Login with Gmail. Sixtus created an unusually large number of cardinals during his pontificate (23) who were drawn from the roster of the princely houses of Italy, France and Spain, thus ensuring that many of his policies continued after his death: Pope Sixtus is portrayed by Arthur Grosser in the short film Assassin's Creed: Lineage, a prequel to the video game Assassin's Creed II. Da Vinci's Demons Wiki is a FANDOM TV Community. [3], In 1464, Della Rovere was elected Minister General of the Franciscan order at the age of 50. When was Pope Sixtus IV born? The brothers ended up fighting over who should be in charge of the city, a power struggle which ended only after Romulus killed his brother. He was killed shortly thereafter with six deacons. The Pope is engaged in all things except for religion. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484. Rome during the reign of Romulus. Shortly after the true Pope Sixtus, Francesco, was elected on conclave, Alessandro usurped the Holy See and had his brother locked up in Castel Sant'Angelo. Girolamo Riario: Portrayed as the antagonist of Leonardo in Da Vinci’s Demons, Girolamo Riario is another character fans are very curious about. On April 26, 1478, during mass at Florence cathedral, the agents of Girolamo Riario, Sixtus IV’s nephew, wounded Lorenzo and killed his brother, Giuliano, in a plot to overthrow the Medici. The top of the casket is a lifelike depiction of the Pope lying in state. He was sent as a missionary to the Canary Islands in 1442, and was named superior of Fortaventura. In November 1476, Isabel and Fernando ordered an investigation into rights of conquest in the Canary Islands, and in the spring of 1478, they sent Juan Rejon with sixty soldiers and thirty cavalry to the Grand Canary, where the natives retreated inland. Pope Sixtus IV (21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 August 1471 to his death. This is a list of sexually active popes, Catholic priests who were not celibate before they became pope, and popes who were legally married. The Pope created 34 cardinals in eight consistories held during his reign, among them three nephews, one grandnephew and one other relative, thus continuing the practice of nepotism that he and his successors would engage in during this period. He imprisons her father, who's the real pope, and killed her younger sister right in front of her. WorldCat is the world's largest library catalog, helping you find library materials online. Pope Sixtus IV (Latin: Xystus IV; 21 July 1414 – 12 August 1484), born Francesco della Rovere, was Pope from 9 August 1471 to his death in 1484.His accomplishments as pope included building the Sistine Chapel; the group of artists that he brought together introduced the Early Renaissance into Rome with the first masterpieces of the city's new artistic age. They were right about his being a mystic, wrong about all else. Pope Sixtus V Servant of the Servants of God. Today, his remains, along with the remains of his nephew Pope Julius II (Giuliano della Rovere), are interred in St. Peter's Basilica, in the floor in front of the monument to Pope Clement X. The real Girolamo also served Pope Sixtus IV, his uncle as the Captain General of the Church. The two papal bulls issued by Pope Nicholas V, Dum Diversas of 1452 and Romanus Pontifex of 1455, had effectively given the Portuguese the rights to acquire slaves along the African Coast by force or trade. The archbishop of Uppsala was also named as the university's Chancellor, and was charged with maintaining the rights and privileges of the university and its members. The Pope Sixtus is said to be the twin brother of the real Pope. --- Romulus was the legendary founder and first king of Rome. [1], Francesco was born to a family of modest means from Liguria, Italy, the son of Leonardo della Rovere and Luchina Monleoni. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (CC-BY-SA). Fils d'un marchand de draps aisé, il fait des études de théologie à Chieri, Bologne et Pavie. Several Italian city-states, Hungary, and France responded positively to the appeal. The secular fortunes of the Della Rovere family began when Sixtus invested his nephew Giovanni with the lordship of Senigallia and arranged his marriage to the daughter of Federico III da Montefeltro, duke of Urbino; from that union came a line of Della Rovere dukes of Urbino that lasted until the line expired, in 1631. He even uses his niece as a piece on the chessboard. Pope Clement XI commissioned this monument for his own dedication to Carlo Francesco Bizzaccheri in 1715. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, he, as a Cardinal, had lived in poverty,and died, in debt, at Rome on 16 October 1594. The Ottoman forces attacked Otranto on May 1 of 1481. They were tortured to recant their belief in Christianity during the reign of Domitian. Although many of these traditions incorporate … Answer. Francesco had already survived an attempt on his life by his brother as a child, … His accomplishments as pope included the construction of the Sistine Chapel and the creation of the Vatican Archives. The angered Italian princes allied to force Sixtus IV to make peace to his great annoyance. All of that was done to facilitate the integration of the Vatican Hill and Borgo with the heart of Old Rome. Pope Sixtus IV was born on 1414-07-21. The jews of this town wanted to celebrate the Passover in their own way; so they secretly abducted the small boy and carried him to the… [3] For refusing to desist from the very hostilities that he himself had instigated and for being a dangerous rival to Della Rovere dynastic ambitions in the Marche, Sixtus placed Venice under interdict in 1483. Each figure incorporates the oak tree ("rovere" in Italian), symbol of Sixtus IV. The holder of numerous church offices, he was made cardinal in 1585 by Pope Sixtus V and elected pope as Clement VIII on Jan. 30, 1592. The Pope Sixtus is said to be the twin brother of the real Pope. He most definitely did not. His bronze funerary monument, now in the basement Treasury of St. Peter's Basilica, made like a giant casket of goldsmith's work, is by Antonio Pollaiuolo. Sixtus IV became ill on 8 August 1484; this illness worsened on 10 August while the pope was attending an event in Rome. Eventually, Sixtus comes to view Da Vinci as Riario does: a prize sent from Heaven, to be brought under Rome’s yoke. Santa Maria Maggiore This church stands on the Esquilino hill and is the first Roman church to be named after the Holy Virgin. Scolar Press, London. Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590) commissioned Domenico Fontana to construct a chapel of the Most Blessed Sacrament Chapel which could also house the Nativity Scene. Why You Should Visit: Extraordinary paintwork; a highlight of Vatican City. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, he, as a Cardinal, had lived in poverty,and died, in debt, at Rome on 16 October 1594. The overall program of the panels, their beauty, complex symbolism, classical references and their relative arrangement are compelling and comprehensive illustrations of the Renaissance worldview. Various traditions attribute the establishment of many of Rome's oldest legal, political, religious, and social institutions to Romulus and his contemporaries. [23] The envoy of the Medici family summed up Sixtus' reign in the announcement to his master 'Today at 5 o'clock His Holiness Sixtus IV departed this life-may God forgive him!' It was that access to corpses which allowed the anatomist Vesalius, along with Titian's pupil Jan Stephen van Calcar, to complete the revolutionary medical/anatomical text De humani corporis fabrica. 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