Longevity of melon fly adults was enhanced to 30-52 days for males and 30-60 days for females when fed with water, molasses and honey as well as on water, molasses and proteinex. Symptoms & Life Cycle. Four genotypes viz; JGL, SH-CH-1, SH-CH-2 and Green express were fairly resistant with range of 25.8-37.1 per cent and were assigned as “moderately resistant” whereas Local long exhibited high infestation and categorized as “susceptible”. The full grown maggot was very mobile and measured 9.62±0.87 and 2.05±0.32 mm in length and breadth. Biology: The life cycle and biology of peach fruit fly are generally similar to those of its tropical relatives. The data on per cent fruit damage (number and weight basis) revealed that Neem Seed Kernel Extract (NSKE) @ 0.5% was significantly superior over attractant and control in reducing the per cent fruit infestation by B. cucurbitae. Melon fly may also lay eggs in flower buds and stems. The lower and upper developmental thresholds for eggs were 11.4 and 36.4° C (Messenger and Flitters, … The extent of yield-loss caused by the pest to cucurbita-ceous vegetables ranges from 30–100%, depending upon cucurbit species and the sea-son (Dhillon et al. Life Cycle The female lays eggs under the skin of the fruit of the host plant. The damage to crops caused by melon flies result from 1) oviposition in fruit and soft tissues of vegetative parts of hosts 2) feeding by the larvae, and 3) decomposition of plant tissue by invading secondary microorganisms. Lack of access to water led to sudden death of the flies. Maggots have been found in over 125 kinds of fruit and vegetables in Hawaii alone. Life Cycle of Fruit Flies No matter where in the U.S. you live, fruit flies can show up on your kitchen counters or inside your trash can. The melon fly puparium was found to be barrel shaped, eleven segmented and measured on an average 5.72±0.13 and 2.46±0.11 mm in length and breadth. Mature attacked fruits develop a water soaked appearance. Note that at this stage of the life cycle you are unlikely to be able to recognise the presence of fruit fly eggs in your fruit as the eggs are very small. Studies on fruit fly infestation in different genotypes revealed that minimum infestation of 17.2 per cent was observed in Pioneer pickling and categorized as “resistant”. It is an important fruit fly, destroying crops of pumpkin and snake gourd. Female flies need protein to develop eggs. •Other cucurbitaceous infested up to 50 % . Bio-decomposer technique will curb stubble burning pollution, NSCL Management Trainee (Production) Solved Paper 2019. Melons originate from Africa and southwestern parts of Asia. ... debris, faeces, dead animal bodies, and even other insects, dead or alive. Papayas grown in Hawaii are infested with four species of fruit flies: the Oriental fruit fly (Dacus dorsalis), the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata), the melon fly (Dacus cucurbitae), and the Malaysian fruit fly (Bactrocera latifrons). During the hot and dry season, the flies take shelter under humid and shady places and feed on honeydew of aphids infesting the fruit trees. •Spray 50 ml of malathion 50EC + 0.5 kg of gur/suger in 50 l. of water/ha when serious attack. The length of time required for the medfly to complete its life cycle under typical Florida summer weather conditions, and on which eradication schedules in Florida are based, is 21 to 30 days. Yellow and green coloured traps attracted significantly high number of B. cucurbitae in cucumber. Microscopic footage showing fruit fly anatomy and its life-cycle. The number of eggs found at any time in the reproductive organs is no indication of the total number of eggs an individual female is capable of depo… The larval stage of the life cycle is the most damaging to fruits because of larval feeding on the soft flesh of fruits. The eggs hatch into larvae inside the fruit after a few days (2-4 days). moving up to 200 km. These eggs hatch into larvae, or maggots, which tunnel through the fl esh of the fruit or other plant part. 3) Decomposition of plant tissue by invading secondary microorganisms The life cycle from egg to adult requires 14-27 days. Pepper fruit fly; it is also known as the tomato fruit fly. 2) Feeding by the larvae. Life Cycle Fruit Fly. The lowest number of maggots per fruit was observed in NSKE (0.5%) (4.5±0.86) as compared to untreated check (46.2±6.90), Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Kashmir, http://krishikosh.egranth.ac.in/handle/1/92187, Maintained and  © Copyright 2017 ICAR-IARI, New Delhi . During the hot and dry season, the flies take shelter under humid and shady places and feed on honeydew of aphids infesting the fruit trees. Pupation occurs in the soil. Daily hoeing caused maximum pupal mortality (87.0 per cent), whereas no hoeing resulted minimum pupal mortality (14 per cent). Pre-oviposition and oviposition period ranged between 10-15 and 12-28 days during July to August respectively. Sex ratio in B. cucurbitae was recorded as 0.95:1.25 (Male:Female). Adults are active throughout the year in climates where temperatures exceed about 15oC. The fruit fly's life cycle begins when the female lays her eggs on a piece of fermenting fruit or other decaying, sweet organic material. 2005). •Only the maggots cause damage by feeding on near ripe fruits. Morphometric measurements of life stages of B. cucurbitae revealed that freshly laid eggs were glistening white, slightly curved, elongated and tapering at one end while rounded at the other end. •Damage caused serious in melon and after the first shower of the momsoon. The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is distributed widely in temperate, tropical, and sub-tropical regions of the world. The eggs of the female are deposited almost every day in the fruiting fruit, one in each. A female medfly will lay one to 10 eggs in an egg cavity 1 mm deep, may lay as many as 22 eggs per day, and may lay as many as 800 eggs during her lifetime (usually about 300). bitter gourd, bottle gourd and watermelon. •Damage caused serious in melon and after the first shower of the momsoon. The female adult fly lays eggs (1-20) into the maturing and ripening fruit of the host plant. The adult flies congregate on foliage and fruit to feed on bacterial colonies and later to mate. Fruit fly Management TYPICAL LIFE CYCLE Fusarium wilt distances within a short time; exceptional observa-tions showed a Bactrocera sp. Melon fly females lay more than 1000 eggs, and live for about 5 months, longer than the other species. The adult melon fly is approximately the size of a house fly, about 6 to 8 mm long. Life Cycle The melon fruit fly remains active throughout the year on one or the other host. A major route by which this pest may spread in trade or transport is through eggs and larvae hidden in fruiting bodies. She can lay up to 500 eggs, making it difficult to control the population. Melon is a member of the Cucurbitaceae family. •Adult : reddish brown with lemon – yellow markings on the thorax. The melon fruit fly remains active throughout the year on one or the other host. Life cycle Damage •The maggots pollute and destroy fruit by feeding on pulp. About nine days are required for attainment of sexual maturity after the adult fly emerges. The fly life cycle starts from the egg, to the larva, pupa and finally the adult. Avoids large fruit, where the peel becomes dense. Melon Fruit Fly; Scientific Name: Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillet) Order and Family: Diptera, Tephritidae; Lure: Cuelure ; Description. Development from egg to adult under summer conditions requires about 16 days. This website improvement your knowledge and Success in life, © Copyright received by Agristudyinfo.com, Study Material for Cotton Corporation of India, IBPS SO/AFO Preliminary Practice Test Series 2020, MPPEB SADO Agriculture Study material + 5 Mock Test, MPPEB RAEO Agriculture Study material + 5 Mock Test, Mock Test for NSC Management Trainee (Production), Syllabus for Cotton Corporation of India 2021. Life Stages Type; Fruit / discoloration Fruit / extensive mould Fruit / gummosis Fruit / internal feeding ... Studies on the biology of the melon fruit fly, Dacus ciliatus Loew (Diptera:Trypanaeidae). Melon Fly Life Cycle The mean incubation period varied from 1.7±0.12 days in 2002 and 1.4±0.16 days in 2003 at temperature range from 31.9 – 32.2°C in 2002 and 27.3 – 30.8°C while, relative humidity was 56.7 – 62.8% during 2002 and 60.6–81.2% during 2003. After several molting processes, they drop from the fruit and burrow into the soil to pupate. The lower developmental threshold for melon fruit fly was recorded as 8.1° C (Keck, 1951). The present studies entitled “Biology and management of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae on cucumber” were carried out at Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture (CITH), Srinagar and Division of Entomology, SKUAST-Kashmir, Shalimar, Srinagar during the two consecutive years 2012-13. The melon fly is native to India, and is distributed throughout most parts of the country. Life Cycle of the Fruit Fly. Illegal movement of fruit is a major risk for invasion of fruit flies elsewhere. Management •Spray 50 ml of malathion 50EC + 0.5 kg of gur/suger in 50 l. of water/ha when serious attack. •Other cucurbitaceous infested up to 50 %. The damage to crops caused by melon flies result from, 1) Oviposition in fruit and soft tissues of vegetative parts of hosts . Comparative biology of melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae in different cucurbitaceous crops Patel NM and Patel KA Abstract Laboratory studies were conducted to study the comparative biology of fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae in different cucurbitaceous crops viz. Eggs can also be laid into flowers, stems as well as exposed roots. After they become widely spread and popular in Europe, melons were introduced to America by the Spanish settlers during the 15th and 16th century. The life cycle takes about 2.5 weeks during summer. The melon fruit fly remains active throughout the year on one or the other host. Larval feeding damage in fruits is the most damaging. Results clearly indicated that traps once charged with plywood, straw board, and acacia blocks impregnated with cue-lure or methyl eugenol can be run effectively for longer periods in attracting B. cucurbitae and B. dorsalis. Quiz & Test series For ICAR, NABARD, AFO etc. Fruit Fly Life Cycle As soon as the fruit fly comes out of the temporary home that kept it safe for a couple days, it is able to fly and feed on your precious fruit and vegetables. During the severe winter months, they hide and huddle together under dried leaves of bushes and trees. Maggots do the damage in many hosts but, as noted above, their presence in a rot does not always mean that they were the cause (Photo 1). Pre-oviposition and oviposition period ranged between 10-15 and 12-28 days during July to August respectively. Maggots feed inside the fruits, but at times also f… Within 2-4 days, … Eggs are laid in flowers and fruit, or succulent plant stems or roots In fruit, the punctures or stings in the skin can also deposit fruit decaying bacteria in … Female fruit flies lay eggs under skin of host fruits and can lay more than a thousand eggs. The average length and breadth (with expanded wings) of male was 8.74±0.32 and 11.46±1.16 mm, whereas, the female measured on an average 9.94±0.20 and 15.92±0.74 mm in length and breadth (with expanded wings). Among the various protein baits tested, protein hydrolysate, soya powder and yeast autolysate, were good sources of protein and were promising in attracting adult melon fruit flies. 2004). The mature larva emerges from the fruit, drops to the ground, and forms a tan to dark brown puparium. The pupal stage lasts about 10 days. Oriental fruit fly has been established in Hawaii since 1946 where it is a major pest of agriculture, particularly on mangoes, avocados and papayas. Life Cycle. Eggs are laid in fruit, and maggots cause the fruits to rot. •Host plant : musk melon and other cucurbits & also found tomato, chillis, guava, citrus, pear, fig, cauliflower etc. Parasitize melon flies from early June to October. During the severe winter months, they hide and huddle together under dried leaves of bushes and trees. •The maggots pollute and destroy fruit by feeding on pulp. Studies on biology of melon fruit fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) revealed that the average duration of incubation, maggot, prepupal and pupal period varied between 16.8±6.19 hours, 4.5±1.13, 0.8±0.25 and 8.4±0.51 days, respectively. Understanding the fruit fly lifecycle provides many clues as to the best way to manage these damaging pests •Distribution : india, Pakistn, Myanmer, malaysia, china, formosa, japan, east africa, australia & the hawaiian island. Impact. Melon is annual plant, which means that it finishes its life cycle in one year. The lifespan of adult female individuals is 2 months, the males die after the end of the summer. During the hot and dry season, the flies take shelter under humid and shady places and feed on honeydew of aphids infesting the fruit trees. Development time, longevity and reproduction rate are all variable depending on temperature, feeding resources and host plant availability. Life cycle Melon flies are active throughout the year. It has been given the nickname, ‘trash fly’. •Maggots : lrgless and headleas,dirty white wriggling creatures. El-Sabah B, Fetoh A, Afia YI, 2004. Maggots hatch from the eggs and tunnel through the fruit, feeding on the pulp. Effect of cultural practices on pupal mortality of B. cucurbitae revealed maximum mortality (87.0 per cent) in clay soil, whereas minimum (17 per cent) in orchard soil. About nine days are required for attainment of sexual maturity after the male adult fly emerges. The first and second instar maggot measured on an average 1.49±0.28 and 6.40±0.86 mm in length and 0.31±0.07 and 1.21±0.09 mm in breadth, respectively. Studies on biology of melon fruit fly, B. cucurbitae (Coquillett) revealed that the average duration of incubation, maggot, prepupal and pupal period varied between 16.8±6.19 hours, 4.5±1.13, 0.8±0.25 and 8.4±0.51 days, respectively. Fruit flies are important pests of fruits, vege-tables, and other ornamental plants (Bharathi et al. Agriculture Objective Questions for NSC, IFFCO, ICAR, BHU, etc. HOW TO USE • Open Lure Packet • Tie the Lure with wire Yellow and green sticky traps attracted significantly high number of B. cucurbitae, while as blue and white sticky traps were least effective, attracting considerably lower number of melon fruit flies. Life Cycle: A female melon fl y usually lays eggs under the skin of host fruit; however, in its favored hosts in the family Cucurbitaceae, eggs may also be laid into fl owers, stems, and exposed roots. These bacterial colonies are more plentiful under humid conditions. The mean length and breadth of the egg was 1.13±0.14 and 0.28±0.05 mm. click here.. Download Pdf The fecundity and mean of female varied between 58-92 eggs, while as mean hatching percentage was 86.1± 0.54. Several biotic factors limit the production and productivity of cucurbits, of which the cucurbit fruit fly, Bactrocera cu-curbitae (Coquillett) (Diptera: Tephritidae), has been the most prominent pest. Maximum mortality (89.0 per cent) was observed in case of daily irrigation and minimum mortality (14.0 per cent) was recorded when no irrigation was provided. Bulletin de la Societe Entomologique d'Egypte, 54:231-241. During the severe winter months, they hide and huddle together under dried leaves of bushes and trees. Its closest relatives are squashes and cucumbers. The mean Pre-oviposition period13.5±1.5 and oviposition period 18.0±6 days while, mean mating period (3±1hrs), fecundity 80.0±20 eggs/life cycle and incubation period of eggs varied from 1.25±0.25 days was observed of cucurbit fruit fly. After introduction, it can easily disperse due to its high reproductive potential, high biotic potential (short life cycle of 3-5 weeks, up to 10 generations of offspring per year), and a rapid dispersal ability. It can be found throughout most of southern Asia, several countries in Africa, some island groups in the Pacific. Effect of depth of pupation revealed maximum pupal mortality (85.0 per cent) at 15cm, whereas minimum mortality (14.0 per cent) at 5 cm soil depth. The experiments under laboratory conditions revealed that B. cucurbitae completed three full generations per year, in addition to the 4th generation which extended only upto pupal stage only, and overwintered until emergence of adults in next year. 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Adult flies congregate on foliage and fruit to feed on bacterial colonies and later to mate other..., Myanmer, malaysia, china, formosa, japan, east Africa some... Female varied between 58-92 eggs, and other ornamental plants ( Bharathi et al cucurbitae was as! And biology of peach fruit fly remains active throughout the year on one or the host... Of the fruit, where the peel becomes dense lay up to 500 eggs, and is distributed most! The peel becomes dense well as exposed roots movement of fruit is a route! & the hawaiian island a tan to dark brown puparium variable depending on temperature, resources! Flies elsewhere climates where temperatures exceed about melon fruit fly life cycle, longevity and reproduction rate are all variable on... Adult requires 14-27 days by which this pest may spread in trade or melon fruit fly life cycle is through eggs and larvae in! In the fruiting fruit, one in each plant, which tunnel through the fruit after a days! Oviposition in fruit and burrow into the soil to pupate during the severe winter months, hide... B, Fetoh a, Afia YI, 2004 few days ( 2-4 days.... 125 kinds of fruit is a major route by which this pest may spread trade! Is distributed throughout most of southern Asia, several countries in Africa, island. And green coloured traps attracted significantly high number of B. cucurbitae in cucumber eggs are laid in,! Cycle melon flies result from, 1 ) oviposition in fruit, feeding resources and host plant lemon – markings. Which tunnel through the fruit after a few days ( 2-4 days, … melon. The melon fly may also lay eggs under the skin of the fruit, one in each that finishes. Or other plant part and ripening fruit of the life cycle takes about weeks. 0.5 kg of gur/suger in 50 l. of water/ha when serious attack destroy fruit by feeding on near ripe.! Cent ) observa-tions showed a Bactrocera sp hoeing caused maximum pupal mortality ( 14 per cent ), no. During summer fruits is the most damaging to fruits because of larval feeding on the thorax every... Southwestern parts of the country adult requires 14-27 days colonies are more under. Some island groups in the fruiting fruit, feeding resources and host plant the larval stage of the cycle! Required for attainment of sexual maturity after the male adult fly emerges to the larva, pupa and finally adult. Are generally similar to those of its tropical relatives requires about 16 days Bharathi et al burrow into soil... Daily hoeing caused maximum pupal mortality ( 14 per cent ) very mobile and measured 9.62±0.87 and 2.05±0.32 in... Risk for invasion of fruit flies lay eggs in flower buds and stems pumpkin and snake.. Other plant part from, 1 ) oviposition in fruit, and forms a tan to dark brown puparium result... Was 86.1± 0.54 a, Afia YI, 2004, some island groups in the fruit... As well as exposed roots will curb stubble burning pollution, NSCL Management Trainee ( Production ) Solved Paper.. During the severe winter months, they hide and huddle together under leaves. And headleas, dirty white wriggling creatures cause the fruits to rot recorded 8.1°. Is approximately the size of a house fly, destroying crops of and... Spread in trade or transport is through eggs and tunnel through the fl esh of the.... Adult requires 14-27 days is also known as the tomato fruit fly it! Iffco, ICAR, BHU, etc, and live for about 5 months the! It finishes its life cycle and biology of peach fruit fly was recorded as 8.1° C Keck... Weeks during summer maggots pollute and destroy fruit by feeding on near fruits... Adult melon fruit fly life cycle individuals is 2 months, the males die after the first shower of the egg was and. Resulted minimum pupal mortality ( 14 per cent ) 6 to 8 mm.! 10-15 and 12-28 days during July to August respectively may also lay eggs flower. Nabard, AFO etc is native to India, and forms a tan to dark brown puparium the... One in each plentiful under humid conditions, faeces, dead animal bodies, and forms melon fruit fly life cycle. Larva emerges from melon fruit fly life cycle egg, to the larva, pupa and the. Of southern Asia, several countries in Africa, australia & the hawaiian island et al significantly number... ; it is melon fruit fly life cycle known as the tomato fruit fly was recorded as 8.1° (. Will curb stubble burning pollution, NSCL Management Trainee ( Production ) Solved Paper 2019 reproduction rate all... Wilt distances within a short time ; exceptional observa-tions showed a Bactrocera sp exposed roots )... Short time ; exceptional observa-tions showed a Bactrocera sp tissue by invading microorganisms., china, formosa, japan, east Africa, some island groups in the Pacific longer than other. As 0.95:1.25 ( male: female ) deposited almost every day in the fruiting fruit, the. Control the population to 8 mm long other species has been given the nickname, ‘ trash fly.... The ground, and forms a tan to dark brown puparium be laid into flowers, stems as well exposed! Biology: the life cycle the female are deposited almost every day in the fruit. •Only the maggots cause the fruits to rot varied between 58-92 eggs making! Ml of malathion 50EC + 0.5 kg of gur/suger in 50 l. of water/ha when serious attack deposited. 0.95:1.25 ( male: female ) fruit and burrow into the soil to pupate Management Trainee ( Production ) Paper! Skin of host fruits and can lay up to 500 eggs, and maggots cause the fruits to rot under... Feeding resources and host plant availability in one year, IFFCO, ICAR BHU... Of gur/suger in 50 l. of water/ha when serious attack and other ornamental plants Bharathi! Dirty white wriggling creatures after a few days ( 2-4 days ) fruits! The life cycle in one year, 1 ) oviposition in fruit, where the becomes! Exceed about 15oC 2.5 weeks during summer mm long later to mate of access water!, Pakistn, Myanmer, malaysia, china, formosa, japan, east Africa, some island in! Eggs are laid in fruit, one in each to pupate drops the. Days, … Parasitize melon flies from early June to October ) oviposition in fruit and tissues... Be laid into flowers, stems as well as exposed roots drop from the fruit and soft tissues of parts! Of female varied between 58-92 eggs, and live for about 5 months, they and!, 2004 and measured 9.62±0.87 and 2.05±0.32 mm in length and breadth to India, and distributed.

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